21. Mär. 2009
um 17:44 Uhr

Umsteigen auf Linux

Welche Betriebssysteme kennst du eigentlich? Was ist denn ein Betriebssystem? Falls dir dazu nicht viel einfällt, wird dieses spannende Thema Neuland für dich sein. Und es beginnt mit einem Geheimnis: Du kannst Betriebssysteme wechseln wie Fahrzeuge, es sei denn, du bist abhängig von einer bestimmten Marke geworden — was ganz leicht passieren kann — und hast Angst, mit anderen Bedienkonzepten nicht zurechtzukommen. Aber stell dir vor, es gäbe Fahrzeuge, für die du nichts bezahlen musst und an denen du relativ einfach herumbasteln kannst, um sie an deine Vorstellungen anzupassen…

Positiv finde ich, dass es Schulen gibt, die ihren Schülern den Umgang mit Linux näherbringen wollen. Wichtig ist in diesem Zusammenhang jedoch allein die Tatsache, dass man normalerweise nicht gezwungen ist, ein bestimmtes Betriebssystem zu nutzen — man kann es selbst wählen!

Ich nutze seit einiger Zeit Linux parallel zu Windows und kann mir mittlerweile vorstellen, ganz auf Linux umzusteigen. Die grafische Benutzeroberfläche führt auch Anfänger meist zum Ziel und es lassen sich teilweise die gleichen Programme nutzen. Wer unter die Oberfläche schaut, findet jedoch Konzepte, die sich von denen bei Windows unterscheiden, was Umsteiger natürlich zunächst verwirren kann. Wer neugierig ist, eine gewisse Lernbereitschaft mitbringt und/oder eine kostenfreie Alternative zu Windows sucht, kann ganz einfach in die Welt von Linux hineinschnuppern.

Linux ist ein sehr modulares System. Da es für einen Anfänger ziemlich schwierig ist, sich diese Module zusammenzusuchen, um sich sein persönliches Linux zu bauen, werden sogenannte Distributionen angeboten, die man als mehr oder weniger umfangreiche Komplettpakete bezeichnen kann. Es gibt etliche dieser Distributionen; einen aktuellen Überblick bietet das Angebot von DistroWatch. Um noch einmal deren Bedeutung zu verdeutlichen: Theoretisch ist es möglich, durch Weg- und Zunahme von Modulen eine Distribution in eine andere umzuwandeln.

Du musst aber nicht die Katze im Sack kaufen installieren. Neben der Möglichkeit, Betriebssysteme parallel zu betreiben, darf auch folgendes nicht unerwähnt bleiben: Oft wird auch eine sogenannte »Live-CD« angeboten. Damit kann das Betriebssystem ohne Installation gestartet und getestet werden. Bei Gefallen lässt sich das System dann bequem auf der Festplatte installieren. Wer keine Rohlinge verschwenden will, sollte sich das Projekt UNetbootin (via aptgetupdate) mal anschauen, ein Programm, das anscheinend sehr komfortabel ein startfähiges System auf einem Speicherstock erzeugen kann. Eine Alternative stellt das Formatierungswerkzeug von Hewlett-Packard (via Patrik) dar, welches ich aber auch noch nicht getestet habe.

Ein schickes und besonders benutzerfreundliches Betriebssystem soll Linux Mint sein. HowtoForge zeigt, wie man daraus eine vollwertige Windows-Alternative macht (via Jun Auza). Es gibt aber auch Anleitungen für Debian, Ubuntu und andere Distributionen. Generell mangelt es zu diesem Thema keineswegs an Anleitungen. Der Verlag Galileo bietet kostenlos 4 Stunden Video-Training zu Ubuntu (via freakcommander) an. Zusätzlich stellt Galileo »das umfassende Handbuch« zu Ubuntu kostenfrei im Internet zur Verfügung.

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